• Interest rate risk management – measurement

    The management of interest rate risk is an important part of corporate risk management. The active management of interest rate exposure minimises the risk of incurring losses and opportunity costs from movements in interest rates. In the first of four articles on interest rate risk management, we define interest rate risk and focus on the methods of measuring interest rate risk exposure.

  • Treasury and audit – conducting a systems audit

    As the role of technology in treasury continues to expand, it is essential to ensure that the systems you have in place are functioning correctly and that the risk of fraud or error is kept to a minimum. This month, in the last article in our series on treasury and audit, we discuss the sort of risks that auditors look out for and the advances in auditing technology that are shaping the way that data are monitored.

  • Treasury and audit

    As financial markets become more complex, corporates are increasingly using derivative financial instruments such as forward forwards, futures, options and swaps. These can help to manage financial risks originating in the volatility of foreign exchange rates, interest rates or commodity prices. However, the use of these instruments has added a new dimension of financial risk for companies and their shareholders, as the current value of a company’s asset or liability may be in excess of the amount at which the instrument is accounted for. The internal or external audit team will therefore need to determine whether all financial instruments are being properly valued and accounted for.

  • Treasury and audit using the treasury audit to reduce risk

    Increasingly complex financial instruments and new technology have added to the amount of risk the treasury function is exposed to. At the same time recent corporate scandals have led to new corporate governance regulations being put in place. In many countries senior management is now held accountable for the implementation and verification of efficient risk management systems in the treasury control framework. In order to confidently sign for the efficiency of control systems, the management board relies on the independent assessment of treasury controls and operations in the form of treasury audits.

  • Foreign exchange risk management in an M&A environment

    For multinational treasurers, managing foreign exchange exposures on a daily basis is an important role in itself. However in an acquisitive environment, the role can take on a different complexion. Treasurers will be required to evaluate any risk associated when making a foreign acquisition, to manage the purchase payments and then to quickly understand the impact of the acquisition on the newly enlarged group’s foreign exchange exposure.

  • Managing FX translation risk part V – IAS 21

    In the final part of the translation risk series we take a closer look at IAS 21 and the accounting treatment and translation methods this standard prescribes for the translation of financial statements denominated in a foreign currency.

  • Managing FX translation risk part IV – accounting treatments for hedges

    Over the past few months in Risk Management, we have looked at translation risk. We have explained what it is, how it occurs and how to manage it as well as defining how it is recorded on the balance sheet. Last month we reviewed different ways of hedging translation risk exposures. Here we examine how accounting standards, particularly IAS 39, affect how hedged translation risk exposures are reported.

  • Managing FX translation risk part III – using hedging instruments

    If you hedge a FX risk exposure, you are trying to establish a second currency position to offset what is lost or gained on the original exposure. The difficulty with hedging a translation risk exposure is that translation risk does not result in cash gains or losses, whereas most hedging transactions do. This month, continuing our series on translation risk, we look at the use of hedging instruments. We explain what you need to consider and the options available.

  • Managing FX translation risk part II – reporting

    Last month we introduced translation risk – we explored what translation risk is, when it arises, the nature of the risk and how to manage it. This month we look at how translation risk is reported in financial accounts and explain the methods used in balance sheet and profit and loss account translation.

  • Managing FX translation risk

    Changes in the exchange rate between the currency in which a company reports and those in which the company’s assets and liabilities are denominated, can have a significant impact on a company’s balance sheet. The risk of this impact is known as ‘translation risk’. It is not an indication of performance failure (at company-wide or individual subsidiary level), but a potential effect of exchange rate changes. This article introduces translation risk.